Automotive industry is moving towards the set goal of "zero emissions."

The Serbian Association of Vehicle and Parts Importers has analyzed the history of the so-called "Green Agenda" and alternative propulsion and fuel types, besides electric power, that lead to achieving the goal of zero CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gases (GHG).

Electric vehicles are leading, but other directions are also being explored.

Due to the alarming greenhouse effect and the reduction of CO2 emissions, serious consideration has been given to replacing fossil fuels since the 1990s. The goal set at that time was to reduce CO2 emissions by 60% by 2030 compared to 1990, and to achieve 0% CO2 emissions by the end of 2050 (the so-called "zero" emissions). It's clear that primarily environmental awareness, as well as economic factors, have influenced the automotive industry to accelerate electrification. Despite challenges such as the relatively limited availability of the primary raw material for battery production, lithium, rising costs, the need for "clean," so-called "green" energy, expensive infrastructure development, electric vehicles are strongly gaining market share. An irrefutable argument, currently one of the strongest arguments for proponents of the "green agenda," is the data published by the World Health Organization regarding the number of deaths due to air pollution.

The Air Protection Program in Serbia from 2022 to 2030 document states that pollutants lead to around 11,000 premature deaths annually. The most harmful impact comes from PM2.5 particles, which according to these estimates, lead to about 10,000 lost lives per year.

The Serbian Association of Vehicle and Parts Importers, along with all its members, contributes to this task through responsible social business practices and behaviors. Through continuous media appearances, various forums, contacts, and partnerships with relevant government institutions, we strive to accelerate this transition in mobility, raising awareness of the enormous costs borne by all citizens of Serbia.

The Association closely monitors all scientific and research developments, as well as possible other ecological propulsion systems that could complement, and some argue, become alternatives to electric vehicle propulsion.


The furthest progress in researching and developing alternative propulsion has been made in the application of hydrogen. Whether through fuel cells or the latest systems under investigation will be shown with time, but the huge advantage of the entire idea is the practically inexhaustible reserve of this element.

At the recent CES 2024 expo held in Las Vegas, great attention was drawn to the topic of fuel cells using hydrogen as a propulsion fuel. At the stand of a leading automotive company, the production of hydrogen from waste such as plastic and biomass was presented, as well as the use of hydrogen for heavy-duty vehicles. It should be clarified that there is a difference between hydrogen fuel cells and hydrogen as a propulsion fuel in internal combustion engines. Fuel cells use hydrogen to produce electrical energy that powers the car via electric motors. On the other hand, hydrogen from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a propulsion fuel in internal combustion engines is directly injected into the engine cylinders and then, through mechanical assemblies, powers the car. The ignition in the cylinders causes a mixture of hydrogen (H2) and air, and the combustion byproduct is pure oxygen (O2).

All major automotive companies are working on "hydrogen propulsion" development. Some giants have already included 2040 as a target year for the mass adoption of passenger vehicles using hydrogen in their development plans, assuming that fueling infrastructure will reach a critical mass and that technology costs will become acceptable.

Nuclear Power

The recent news that a "Chinese startup" has developed the first nuclear battery, 15 mm long, 15 mm wide, and 5 mm high, capable of producing electrical energy for 50 years, has garnered immense attention. The battery is internally radioactive but encapsulated and does not emit radiation. Additionally, the battery uses nickel-63 as a stable radioactive material. Despite being radioactive, the battery does not contain a small nuclear reactor but captures energy from decaying isotopes. With the help of semiconductors, this energy is converted into electrical energy. However, it's a long road to potential implementation in the automotive industry. Seasoned automotive industry experts know that research into this type of energy as a vehicle propulsion has been ongoing for some time, with several prototypes created, but numerous limitations have prevented these models from entering production lines and they ended up in museums.

Air Propulsion

Although it seems incredible, the use of compressed air for vehicle propulsion is still being researched. A small French company recently developed an engine that is installed in some cars from an Indian automotive giant. The engine, if available data is accurate, is ingeniously designed, very simple, and inexpensive to manufacture, with usage costs below one EUR per 100 kilometers. The range with one tank of compressed air is 200 to 300 km or 10 hours of driving. These characteristics make it an ideal vehicle for urban areas, where 80% of drivers travel distances of less than 30 to 60 km. The maximum speed of these cars is 110 km/h. The compressed air tank is filled in about 2-3 minutes at special compressor charging stations, and the car can also be equipped with a compressor that is powered by the electrical grid and fills the tank in about 3-4 hours. The exhaust system produces cold air at temperatures of 0 to -15 degrees Celsius, making it ideal for cooling the passenger compartment if needed without any power loss. The fiberglass tanks contain a huge amount of compressed air. As the air expands, it moves the pistons, providing motion. Simple, isn't it? Time will be the ultimate judge here as well. The idea is certainly interesting, as several other small companies have already produced their vehicle models using this propulsion method.

Solar Power

The idea of using solar energy to power vehicles is not new. Models with solar panels on the roof or entire surfaces of vehicles were made as early as the mid-1950s. Recently, world championships for solar vehicles (not just cars but also planes) are being held, setting new records in speed and range. It's worth mentioning the project led by our famous designer Marko Luković in Italy, who has won several times at major world competitions. The vehicle he and his team constructed is registered and driving on the streets of Italian cities, representing a significant starting point for future projects.